This is primarily space opera, but with a mathematical element in
the fictional discovery of randomatics: a science which shows that
the Gambler's Fallacy is true under certain conditions, enabling
random sequences - even from, say, subatomic decay - to be predicted
by 'randomatic calculus'.
The hero, a gambler and professor of randomatics, is caught up
in a three-way battle between between the forces of law and order; an
evil gambling cartel called The Grand Wheel; and the Hadranics,
aliens who gamble on the fate of galaxies.
While the mathematics is neither very deep nor accurate, the book
has a few pleasant in-jokes such as the omnipresent gambling machine
called a fermat.